European architectural style classification

European architectural style classification
1. Gothic architecture. This architectural style originated in France. In the second half of the 11th century, some French churches had prototypes of rib vaults and flying buttresses. In the Gothic architectural style church building, its structural system is composed of a stone skeleton voucher and flying buttresses. The basic unit is a double-circle skeleton point voucher made on a square or rectangular plane with four corners. There are one on each corner, and the roof slabs are placed on the coupons to form a vault. In order to balance the lateral thrust of the arch feet of the central hall and increase its stability, its flying buttresses are issued by the pillar piers outside the side hall, and minarets are built on the pillar piers. And thanks to the use of pointed coupons, pointed arches and flying buttresses, the interior space of the Gothic church appears more spacious, simple and unified. The architectural style, with decorative details such as canopies and niches, is also themed with sharp coupons, making the architectural style and structural techniques form an organic whole church. In addition, due to its four-pointed coupon building structure, it better solves the problem of the ribbed vault structure between the arches. In addition, the building has a large area of ​​stained glass windows. This style has a great influence on the rise of secular architecture. Influence and effect.

2. Baroque architecture. The architectural style was developed on the basis of the architecture of the Italian Renaissance. Its characteristics are free and unrestrained, complex in shape, full of change, pursuit of dynamics, strange and weird, like rich decoration and sculpture, strong colors and often interspersed curved surfaces And an oval space, but some architectural decorations are overlaid. In the churches of Baroque architectural style, some church doors are made of overlapping arcs and triangles with layered eaves and mountain flowers, and leaning columns and flat pilasters are used on both sides of the door. Two pairs of large scrolls were made on the upper and lower sides of the facade. The altar of the church is richly and freely decorated, and the mountain flowers above break through the classical French style, making icons and decorative light. However, some churches have a simple and elegant appearance, with soft shapes and few decorations, and the outer walls are dry, in harmony with the natural environment. The interior decoration of the church is very gorgeous, creating a strong contrast between inside and outside. There are also some churches that use this style of architecture too much to pursue luxury, even to the point of cumbersome piles.

3. Ancient Roman architecture. This architectural style is an architectural style that the ancient Romans inherited from the Etruscan architectural technology and the achievements of ancient Greek architecture, and extensively innovated in architectural form, technology and art. The forms of ancient Roman secular architecture are quite mature, and there are many types, such as the Pantheon, Venus and Roman temples in Rome, as well as religious buildings such as the Balbec Sun Temple. There are also royal palaces, arenas, baths, squares and Basili Cards and other public buildings. Residential buildings include courtyard-style residences, residences that combine courtyard-style and column courtyards, and four- and five-story apartment-style residences. In addition, its form and function are well combined. For example, in large theaters throughout the Roman Empire, their auditoriums were semicircular in plan and raised row by row, with vertical aisles as the main and horizontal aisles as supplement.