Masonry structure

What is masonry structure
Masonry structure (brick-concrete structure) is a wall or column made of blocks and mortar, including brick masonry, block masonry, stone masonry and wall board masonry. Masonry masonry is used in general engineering In the building, masonry occupies about 1/2 of the weight of the entire building, and labor and cost each account for about 1/3. It is an important material for construction projects. For a long time, my country’s dominant masonry material sintered drilled earth brick has a history of more than two thousand years, and it is called “Qin brick and Han tile” together with clay tiles.

However, this kind of masonry material requires a large amount of clay as raw material. In order to effectively protect the arable land, the state requires that clay bricks are not used as much as possible. Masonry materials are developing in the direction of making full use of various industrial wastes, being lightweight, high-strength, hollow, large, and multifunctional.

Advantages and disadvantages of masonry structure
The main advantages of masonry structure are: ① It is easy to obtain materials on site. Bricks are mainly made of clay; the raw material of stone is natural stone; the blocks can be made of industrial waste-slag, which is convenient in source and low in price. ② Brick, stone or block masonry has good fire resistance and good durability. ③No formwork and special construction equipment are required for masonry construction, which can save wood. The newly built masonry can bear a certain load, so it can be continuously constructed. In cold areas, the freezing method can be used for masonry in winter without special insulation measures. ④ Brick walls and block walls can be insulated and kept warm, and the energy saving effect is obvious. Therefore, it is not only a better load-bearing structure, but also a better enclosure structure. ⑤ When using blocks or large plates as the wall, it can reduce the structural weight, speed up the construction progress, and carry out industrial production and construction.

The disadvantages of the masonry structure are: ①Compared with steel and concrete, the strength of the masonry is lower, so the cross-sectional size of the component is larger, the amount of materials is large, and the self-weight is large. ②Masonry construction is basically manual, which requires a lot of labor. ③The tensile and shear strength of the masonry are very low, so the seismic resistance is poor, and its use is restricted to a certain extent; the compressive strength of bricks and stones cannot be fully exerted; and the bending resistance is low. ④ Clay bricks need to be made of clay, which occupy too much farmland in some areas, which affects agricultural production.

Precautions for masonry structure
The main issues that need to be paid attention to in the construction of masonry structures: 1. The size requirements of the mortar joints, the flatness requirements, the verticality requirements, etc. 2. The construction line must be accurate, and the deviation must be within the allowable range. 3. Whether the quality of the block meets the requirements, whether the mortar mix meets the design requirements, and whether the operation is in accordance with the masonry construction plan. 4. To make mortar test blocks, make more sets of spare parts. 5. The 300-wide steel mesh sheet should be laid on the contact with the concrete column or concrete wall as required, and do not miss it. 6. Note that the structural column must be set up as required and the size must be accurate. The length of the tie should not be short. 7. A concrete guide wall should be set up under the masonry, and should not be missed. 8. Only when the masonry is submitted for inspection and retest is allowed to be constructed.