Radon pollution refers to pollution caused by radon radiation. Radon is a radioactive inert gas with the chemical symbol Rn. It exists in minerals containing uranium or thorium, and also exists in the atmosphere close to the ground. It is soluble in water, has strong radioactivity, and can emit high-energy alpha particles and Gamma rays have a half-life of 3.82 days. After the human body inhales air containing radon or drinks water containing radon, it will be exposed to internal radiation and be harmed.
Sources of radon pollution: Radon in the indoor environment mainly comes from the following sources: 1. It comes from underground foundation soil. The diffusion of foundation soil enters the room through cracks on the ground and walls; 2. It comes from groundwater. Studies have proved that when the concentration of radon in water reaches 104 becquer/m3, it is an important indoor source of radon; 3. It comes from the outdoor atmosphere. The radon in the outdoor atmosphere will enter the room with the outdoor air; 4. From the combustion of natural gas. When burning natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, if the indoor ventilation is not good, all the radon in it is released indoors; 5. It comes from building materials and interior decoration materials; especially some building materials such as slag bricks and slag bricks (usually contain different The degree of radium) and those interior decoration materials that contain high uranium, such as granite and ceramic tiles, sanitary ware, etc.
Radon hazard: When radon and its derivatives enter the human body through the respiratory tract, they often stay in the entire respiratory tract of the human body for a long time, which is one of the important causes of human respiratory diseases. The hazards of radon to human health are mainly manifested in the changes in blood cells in the body when exposed to high concentrations of radon. Radon has a high affinity for human fat, especially when it is combined with the nervous system, it is more harmful. Another manifestation is the occurrence of tumors. Since radon is a radioactive gas, when people inhale it, it can induce lung cancer.
Radon pollution detection method: 1. Instrument method: This method refers to the indoor environmental pollution control regulations for civil construction engineering DBJ01-91-2004 (for use only in Beijing) and the indoor environmental pollution control specification for civil construction engineering GB50325-2001 (2006 edition) to use radon The testing equipment is placed indoors for 24 hours and the external doors and windows are closed for continuous monitoring during the monitoring period. The data is recorded regularly and the final average value is taken as the test result. 2. Activated carbon box method: This method is based on the indoor environmental pollution control regulations for civil construction engineering DBJ01-91-2004 (for use in Beijing area). The activated carbon box is placed in the detection position for 48 hours, and then the activated carbon box is closed for 3 hours before gamma can be performed. Energy spectrometer measurement and analysis; the activated carbon box method specified in the indoor indoor air quality standard GB/T18883-2002 is based on GB/T14582-1993, which stipulates that the activated carbon box should be placed in the detection position for 3-7 days, and then the activated carbon box should be sealed 3 After hours, the gamma spectrometer can measure and analyze. 3. The instrument method is used to detect the concentration of radon in the soil.
Solutions to radon pollution: 1. Since the radon pollution in the indoor environment is related to the building structure and materials used, consumers should check the indoor environment test report of the house when buying a house. You can also ask relevant agencies to do indoor environment radon pollution tests. 2. Consumers should choose low-radioactive construction and decoration materials in accordance with national standards as much as possible when decorating their homes. In particular, pay attention to choosing natural stone with low radioactivity and qualified ceramic tiles as much as possible, and at the same time, pay attention to the reasonable combination of materials to prevent radon pollution in the indoor environment caused by excessive radioactive materials. 3. The basement and the first floor and the rooms with high radon content should pay more attention to filling and sealing all cracks on the floor and wall during the decoration. This approach can effectively reduce the precipitation of radon. 4. Do a good job of indoor ventilation, which is an effective way to reduce indoor radon concentration. When the doors and windows of the house are closed or fully opened, the indoor radon concentration can vary by 2-5 times. When there is no ventilation, the indoor radon concentration can reach more than 200Bq/m3. When the ventilation rate is twice per hour, the indoor radon concentration drops to About 30Bq/m3, in a room with a radon concentration of 151 beq/m3, after opening the window for 1 hour, the indoor radon concentration will drop to 48 beq/m3. In addition, opening windows can significantly reduce the indoor radon concentration, generally 1-2 times. 5. In the house that has been moved in, if it is considered that there is a possibility of excessive radon gas, you can entrust a qualified indoor environmental testing unit to conduct the test. If you find that there is a problem of radon pollution, you can choose an air purifier under the guidance of an expert. In the form of radon daughters in the indoor air, some air purifiers with high-efficiency filtering devices can be used to reduce the radon pollution in the indoor environment.